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Reducing waste is a key goal for any business, whether it’s simply using less stationery or optimising steel manufacturing, but it is often far more literal in the dairy industry. In general, creating a kilogram of dairy produce requires somewhere between two and four litres of water, but it can generate anything from just half a litre of wastewater up to over 20 litres. To some extent, this will depend on the dairy product being made, but there are still huge variations in wastewater generation between dairies, even when making the same product.
Distilled water is just one form of purified water. Distilled water is water which has been boiled to create water vapour which is then condensed back into liquid in another container. Impurities, such as minerals, which do not boil at or below the boiling point of water are left behind thus creating purified, distilled water.
Deionised water, or DI water, is sometimes called demineralised water, or DM water. It is water which has had (most of) the ions removed. Ions are atoms or molecules which have either more electrons than protons, making a negative ion (an anion) or fewer electrons than protons, making a positive ion (called a cation).
The production of beer and spirits requires large volumes of water, for example, it takes around 50 litres of water to produce one litre of whisky.1 According to the 2015 Environmental Strategy Report2 from the Scottish Whisky Association, in 2014 the whisky industry’s total water input was 48.8 million cubic metr